Spirulina is a blue-green algae, and is believed to be one of the oldest life forms on Earth. It contains antioxidants, nutrients, including B vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin E, minerals, chlorophyll, and phycocyanobilin, commonly used as a source of vegan protein. a potent source of nutrients.

Many antioxidants in spirulina have anti-inflammatory effects on the body. The quality of the protein in spirulina is considered excellent — comparable to eggs. It gives all the essential amino acids that you need.

Spirulina is a good source of: 

  •  Thiamine ( vitamin B1 )
  •  Riboflavin ( vitamin B2 )
  •  Niacin ( vitamin B3 )
  •  Copper
  •  Iron
  • Magnesium

The A. maxima and A. platensis species were once classified in the genus Spirulina. Spirulina, scientifically called arthrospira platensis, is technically a type of bacteria.


1. Effective Against Anemia

  • The older population can have either type of anemia – however, this Spirulina helped the iron-deficient kind of anemia.   This needs to be pointed out because people with a B12 or Folate deficiency causing anemia may take Spirulina and thereby worsen the anemia.

2. Essential Fatty Acids

  • Essential fatty acids are also known as good fats. the main function is to produce prostaglandins that control the body functions like heart rate, blood pressure, fertility, and immune system function.
  • Spirulina contains essential fatty acids such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linolenic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA)

3. Spirulina contains Beta-Carotene

  •  Beta-carotene is a pigment belonging to the carotenoid family and is widely known for its antioxidant properties. It is mostly found in fruits and vegetables, imparting red, orange or yellow color to them.

4. Treatment in Allergies

  • People with allergic rhinitis found several benefits for spirulina consumption, including improvement in symptoms like nasal discharge, sneezing, congestion, and itching.

5. Treatment in Depression, Anxiety

  • Spirulina is a good source of folic acid which provides nourishment for the brain and supports the production of energy and blood cells. This makes it beneficial in the treatment of depression.
  • People with certain mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, may have reduced levels of serotonin.  Serotonin plays an important role in mental health.


Tryptophan is an amino acid that supports serotonin production.

6. Lowers Blood Cholestrol

  • Spirulina reduces blood cholesterol levels naturally and boosts the absorption of vital minerals.
  • a molecule called SP6 in spirulina triggers relaxation of the artery, a process called vasodilatory action, which can help lower blood pressure by increasing the amount of blood pumped in one motion.
  •  This effect caused by nitric oxide, a chemical known for maintaining healthy blood pressure, the researchers reported.

7. Weight Loss

  • Spirulina is a high-nutrient, low-calorie food that contains a lot of nutrition in a small amount of powder. Taking this supplement is beneficial while fasting, as it supplies the nutrients that are needed to cleanse and heal your system while curbing your appetite.

8. Prevents Cancer

  • Several studies have proven that Spirulina can arrest the development of cancer progression, reduce the risk of cancer initiation and boost your immune system.
  •  Unlike animal proteins, it does not burden your body with waste products. It is also rich in phycocyanin, a pigment with anti-cancer properties.
  • Phycocyanin can fight free radicals and inhibit the production of inflammatory signaling molecules, providing impressive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

9. Beneficial in Diabetes

10. Help in side effects of HIV and AIDS

  • Spirulina can cure the symptoms that are a side-effect of HIV and AIDS treatment.


People consider spirulina a superfood due to its excellent nutritional content and health benefits.


  • Anti-Ageing Benefits – Spirulina contains tyrosine, vitamin E or tocopherol, and selenium, all of which are known for their anti-ageing effects. Tyrosine slows down the ageing of skin cells.
  • Healthy Nails
  • Detoxifies Skin
  • Promotes Hair Growth –  Besides consumption, this algae is used as an ingredient in shampoos and conditioning treatments. It also helps in hair re-growth.


Spirulina can be availed as powder, tablet and capsule.

Things to be noticed while buying Spirulina. Tablet is more safer and will not smell .If you buy capsules it is of 2 types vegetarian capsules and non vegetarian capsules.

Vegetarian Capsules made of Plant waste. It is costlier.

Non – Veg capsules are made from animal waste. It is cheaper.

Powder form will have the smell and measuring the exact quantity of consumption will be difficult.


List of all Chief Minister’s in TamilNadu

How a Chief Minister is selected?

The chief minister is elected through a majority in the state legislative assembly. This is procedurally established by the vote of confidence in the legislative assembly, as suggested by the governor of the state who is the appointing authority.

Eligibility to become a CM ?

The Constitution of India sets the principle qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the office of the chief minister. A chief minister must be:

  • a citizen of India.
  • Should be 25 years of age or more. 
  • Should be a member of the state legislature.

To know more about States and Union Territories Click Here

Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu since 1920

Thiru A Subbarayalu

At the end of November 1920, the first general elections were held to the Madras Legislative Assembly as per the Montford Reforms.

(D.O.B – 15 October 1855)

(D.O.D –  November 1921)


South Indian Liberal Federation ( Justice Party )

TENURE ( 17-12-1920 to 11-07-1921 )


Thiru Panagal Raja

Ramarayaningar was born in Srikalahasti, Chittoor district. He was educated in Madras and obtained degrees in Sanskrit, law, philosophy and Dravidian languages before entering politics.

Ramarayaningar served as the Chief Minister of Madras from 11 July 1921 till 3 December 1926.

(D.O.B – 9 July 1866 )

(D.O.D – 16 December 1928)


South Indian Liberal Federation ( Justice Party )

TENURE ( 11-07-1921 to 03-12-1926 )

Dr. P Subbarayan

Paramasivan Subbarayan was an Indian politician, freedom fighter and diplomat and was the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency, India’s ambassador to Indonesia and Union Minister of Transport and Communications in Jawaharlal Nehru‘s government.

The Governor chose Subbarayan, who was not affiliated to either of these parties, to form the Government and nominated 34 new members to the Madras Legislative Council to support him.

(D.O.B – 11 September 1889 )

(D.O.D – 6 October 1962)


TENURE ( 04-12-1926 to 27-10-1930 )

Thiru P Munuswamy Naidu

Munuswamy Naidu was born in TiruttaniMadras Presidency in 1885 in a family of agriculturists. He studied law and worked as a lawyer and businessman. 

Munuswamy Naidu had his early education at Madras Christian College.

(D.O.B – 1885)

(D.O.D – 1935)


South Indian Liberal Federation ( Justice Party )

TENURE ( 27-10-1930 to 04-11-1932 )

Thiru Ramakrishna Ranga Rao, Raja of Bobbili

Ramakrishna Ranga Rao was born in the royal family of Bobbili zamindari in 1901. He succeeded his father Venkata Kumar Krishna to the throne of Bobbili and ruled as zamindar from 1921 to 1948 and as the titular “Raja of Bobbili” from 1948 to 1978. He set up trusts and patronized sports and education.

 He joined the Justice Party in 1930 and was elected to the Madras Legislative Assembly. He served as the Chief Minister or Premier of Madras Presidency from 1932 to 1936 and 1937.

(D.O.B – 20 February 1901)

(D.O.D – 10 March 1978)


South Indian Liberal Federation ( Justice Party )

TENURE ( 05-11-1932 to 04-04-1936 )

Thiru Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu

Sir Kurma Venkatareddy Naidu was an Indian lawyer, professor, politician 

Reddy Naidu was a native of Draksharama in the Madras Presidency and belonged to a prominent Telaga Balija family.

(D.O.B -15 May 1875)

(D.O.D – 10 September 1942 )


South Indian Liberal Federation ( Justice Party )

TENURE ( 01-04-1937 to 14-07-1937 )

Thiru C Rajagopalachari

Chakravarti Rajagopalachari informally called Rajaji. He was an Indian statesman, writer, lawyer, and independence activist

Rajagopalachari was born in the Thorapalli village of Hosur taluk in the Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu and was educated at Central College, Bangalore, and Presidency College, Madras

(D.O.B – 10 December 1878)

(D.O.D – 25 December 1972 )


Swatantra Party

TENURE ( 14-07-1937 to 29-10-1939 ) & ( 10-04-1952  to 13-04-1954 )

Thiru Tanguturi Prakasam

Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu was an Indian politician and freedom fighter, chief minister of the Madras Presidency, and subsequently became the first chief minister of the new Andhra state, created by the partition of Madras State along linguistic lines.

(D.O.B – 10 December 1878)

(D.O.D – 25 December 1972 )


Indian National Congress

TENURE ( 30-04-1946 to 23-03-1947 )

Thiru O P Ramaswamy Reddiyar

Omandur Ramaswamy Reddy was born on 1 February 1895 in the village of Omandur near Tindivanam in the South Arcot district of Madras Presidency.

During his tenure, the Madras Temple Entry Authorization Act 1947 was passed. This act was intended to give Dalits and other prohibited Hindus full and complete rights to enter Hindu temples.

(D.O.B – 1 February 1895)

(D.O.D – 25 August 1970 )


Indian National Congress

TENURE ( 23-03-1947 to 06-04-1949 )

Thiru P S Kumaraswamy Raja

Raja was born on 8 July 1898 in Rajapalayam to Poosapati Sanjeevi Raja.

Raja was connected with the Indian National Congress organisation at its every level. The lives and writings of Annie Besant and Satyamurthy had a great influence on his mind and character in his formative years.

(D.O.B – 8 July 1898 )

(D.O.D – 16 March 1957 )


Indian National Congress

TENURE ( 06-04-1949 to 09-04-1952 )

Thiru K Kamaraj

Kamaraj was born on 15 July 1903 in Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu, to Kumaraswami and Sivakami Ammal. His name was originally Kamatchi, later changed to Kamarajar. His father Kumaraswami was a merchant.

On 13 April 1954, Kamaraj became the Chief Minister of Madras Province.

Major irrigation schemes were planned in Kamaraj’s period. Dams and irrigation canals were built across higher Bhavani, Mani Muthar, Aarani, Vaigai, Amaravathi, Sathanur, Krishnagiri, Pullambadi, Parambikulam, and Neyyaru among others.

Industries with huge investments in crores of Rupees were started in his period: Neyveli Lignite Corporation, BHEL at Trichy, Manali Refinery, Hindustan raw photo film factory at Ooty, surgical instruments factory at Chennai, and a railway coach factory at Chennai were established. Industries such as paper, sugar, chemicals, and cement took off during the period.

(D.O.B – 15 July 1903)

(D.O.D – 2 October 1975 )


Indian National Congress

TENURE (13-04-1954 to 02-10-1963 )

Thiru M Bakthavatsalam

Minjur Bhakthavatsalam was an Indian independence activist and politician.

Bhaktavatsalam was born to C. N. Kanakasabhapathi Mudaliar and his wife Mallika in a Saiva Vellalar family of Nazarethpet or Nazareth village, Madras Presidency.

(D.O.B – 9 October 1897 )

(D.O.D – 13 February 1987  )


Indian National Congress

TENURE ( 02-10-1963 to 06-03-1967 )

Dr. C.N. Annadurai

Annadurai was born in a TamilSengunthar family.  His father Natarajan Mudaliar was a weaver and his mother was Bangaru Ammal.

In 1934, he graduated with a B.A. degree(Honours) from Pachaiyappa’s College in Chennai. He then earned an MA degree in Economics and Politics from the same college. 

(D.O.B -15 September 1909 )

(D.O.D – 3 February 1969  )


Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (from 1949)

TENURE ( 02-10-1963 to 06-03-1967 )

Dr. Kalaignar M Karunanidhi

Karunanidhi was born in the village of Thirukkuvalai in Nagapattinam district.

Muthuvel Karunanidhi was an Indian writer and politician.He was popularly referred to as “Kalaignar” (Artist) and “Mutthamizh Arignar” (Tamil Scholar) for his contributions to Tamil literature. 

At the age of 33, Karunanidhi entered the Tamil Nadu assembly by winning the Kulithalai seat in the 1957 election. He became the DMK treasurer in 1961.

He had the longest tenure as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu with 6,863 days in office. 

(D.O.B – 3 June 1924 )

(D.O.D – 7 August 2018  )


Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (from 1949)


1st Term ( 02-10-1963 to 06-03-1967 ) , 2nd Term ( 15-03-1971 to  31-01-1976 ) , 3rd Term ( 27-01-1989 to 30-01-1991 ) , 4th Term ( 13-05-1996 to  13-05-2001 ) , 5th Term ( 13-05-2006 to 15-05-2011 )

Dr. M G Ramachandran

Maruthur Gopala Ramachandran was born in KandySri Lanka, in the Malayali family of Melakkath Gopalan Menon, a PalakkadMannadiyar Nair and Maruthur Satyabhama, a VadavannurVellalar.

Ramachandran made his film debut in 1936, in the film Sathi Leelavathi

Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran popularly known as M. G. R. was an Indian politician and film actor who served as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu for over nine years between 1977 and 1987.

(D.O.B -17 January 1917 )

(D.O.D – 24 December 1987  )


All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam


1st Term ( 30-06-1977 to 17-02-1980 ) , 2nd Term ( 09-06-1980 to  15-11-1984 ) , 3rd Term ( 10-02-1985 to 24-12-1987 )

Thirumathi Janaki Ramachandran

Janaki was born in the town of Vaikom in Kottayam district of Travancore.

Janaki and Ramachandran married in 1963. Janaki, who had been relegated to less significant film roles as she aged, withdrew from films started being a home maker The couple did not have any children.

(D.O.B -23 September 1924 )

(D.O.D -19 May 1996 )


All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

TENURE ( 07-01-1988 to  30-01-1988 )

Dr. Selvi J Jayalalithaa

Jayalalithaa was born on 24 February 1948 as Komalavalli at Melukote, Pandavapura taluk, Mandya district, then in Mysore State (now Karnataka) to Jayaram and Vedavalli (Sandhya) in a Tamil Brahmin Iyengar family.

Jayaram Jayalalithaa was an Indian politician and film actress. She served 6 times as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu for 15 years between 1991 and 2016.

(D.O.B – 24 February 1948 )

(D.O.D – 5 December 2016 )


All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

Thiru O. Panneerselvam

Ottakarathevar Panneerselvam Popularly Known as O.P.S. is an Indian politician.

Panneerselvam was born to Ottakkara Thevar and Palaniammal Nachiar on 14 January 1951 in Periyakulam, Tamil Nadu. Paneerselvam started his political career periyakulam as a worker of the then united DMK in 1969 at the age of 18. He joined the AIADMK in 1973 after M. G. Ramachandran split from the DMK.

(D.O.B -14 January 1951 )


All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam


1st Term (21-09-2001 to  01-03-2002 ) , 2nd Term ( 29-09-2014 to 22-05-2015 ) , 3rd Term (06-12-2016 to 15-02-2017)

Edapaddi K. Palaniswami

Edappadi Karuppa Palaniswami was born  to Karuppa Gounder and Thavasiyammal at Siluvampalayam, Salem.

Palaniswami entered politics as a volunteer for the AIADMK in 1974.

Palaniswami was selected by the AIADMK as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu in February 2017, following the resignation of O. Panneerselvam, who became chief minister after the demise of former chief minister J. Jayalalithaa who won the 2016 Legislative Assembly election as CM candidate of AIADMK.

(D.O.B – 23 March 1954 )


All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

TENURE ( 16 February 2017 – 6 May 2021 )

M. K. Stalin

Stalin is the third son of DMK Chief M. Karunanidhi, and was born to his wife, Dayalu Ammal.

Muthuvel Karunanidhi Stalin is an Indian politician. Stalin became the city’s first directly elected mayor in 1996.

 In 2008, he became treasurer of DMK. On 29 May 2009, Stalin was nominated as Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.

In the 2021 Assembly elections, Stalin led the campaign for the Secular Progressive Alliance. They won 159 seats out of 234, with the DMK itself winning an absolute majority with 132 seats. 

(D.O.B – 1 March 1953 )


Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

TENURE ( 7 May 2021 – )

States and Union Territories

 There are 28 states and 8 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her. 

To know more about Health articles check our Blog.

covid19 vaccine

8 Vaccines For Covid-19 Hacks You Need to Know

What is a Vaccine ?

vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.

What is Vaccination ?

Vaccination is a safe, simple, and effective way of protecting people against harmful diseases before they come into contact with them. 

Are there side effects from vaccines?

Like any medicine, vaccines can cause mild side effects, such as a low-grade fever, or pain or redness at the injection site. Mild reactions go away within a few days on their own.

4 Categories of vaccines in clinical trial

  1. Whole Virus
  2. Viral Vector
  3. Nucleic Acid ( RNA & DNA)
  4. Protein Subunit.




ManufacturerBharat Biotech
Drug ClassWhole-Virion Inactivated Vaccine

Ingredients :

COVAXIN includes the following ingredients: COVAXIN contains 6µg of whole-virion inactivated SARSCoV-2 antigen (Strain: NIV-2020-770), and the other inactive ingredients such as aluminum hydroxidegel (250 µg), TLR 7/8 agonist (imidazoquinolinone) 15 µg, 2-phenoxyethanol 2.5 mg, and phosphate buffer saline up to 0.5 ml. The vaccine (COVAXIN ) thus has been developed by using inactivated/killed virus along with the aforementioned chemicals


Side effects that have been reported with the Bharat Biotech COVID-19 (COVAXIN ) include:
Injection site pain / Swelling / Redness / Itching
Malaise/body ache

Source: https://www.bharatbiotech.com/images/covaxin/covaxin-fact-sheet.pdf


ManufacturerSerum Institute of India
Drug ClassVaccine

Ingredients :

The COVISHIELD™ Vaccine includes the following ingredients:
L-Histidine, L-Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, Magnesium chloride hexahydrate,
Polysorbate 80, Ethanol, Sucrose, Sodium chloride, Disodium edetate dihydrate (EDTA), Water for


In ongoing clinical trials, the COVISHIELD™ Vaccine has been shown to prevent COVID-19 disease
following 2 doses given between 4 and 12 weeks apart. The duration of protection against COVID-19
disease is currently unknown.
You may get protective immune response 4 weeks after the second dose of COVISHIELD™ vaccine.


Side effects that have been reported with (COVISHIELD) include:
Very Common (may affect more than 1 in 10 people)
tenderness, pain, warmth, redness, itching, swelling or bruising where the injection is given
generally feeling unwell • feeling tired (fatigue)
• chills or feeling feverishFever
• headache
• feeling sick (nausea)
• joint pain or muscle ache

Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)
• a lump at the injection site
• fever
• being sick (vomiting)
• flu-like symptoms, such as high temperature, sore throat, runny nose, cough and chills

Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)
• feeling dizzy
• decreased appetite
• abdominal pain
• enlarged lymph nodes
• excessive sweating, itchy skin or rash

These may not be all the possible side effects of the COVISHIELD™ Vaccine. Serious and
unexpected side effects may occur. COVISHIELD™ Vaccine is still being studied in clinical trials

Source: https://www.seruminstitute.com/pdf/covishield_fact_sheet.pdf

Sputnik – v

ManufacturerGamaleya National Research Centre of Epidemiology and Microbiology
Drug ClassViral Vector Vaccine
  • Sputnik V is the world’s first registered vaccine based on a well-studied human adenoviral vector-based platform.
  • Sputnik V or Gam-COVID-Vac works as a two-part vaccine. It includes two adenovirus vectors recombinant human adenovirus type 26 (rAd26-S) and recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rAd5-S).

The Countries that have approved Sputnik – V:

The Russia Federation, China, Italy , Mexico , Republic of Turkey , Africa , Republic of Mauritius, Philippines, Serbia , Vietnam, Antigua and Barbuda, Austria, Mali, Panama , Egypt, India, Venezuela, Palestine , Pakistan, Nicaragua , Mauritius , Argentina , Nicaragua, Iran, Iraq, Paraguay, Lebanon , Republic of Seychelles, Ghana , Nepal , Honduras , Bangladesh , Bolivia , Albania , San Marino , Maldives , Ecuador


Drug ClassmRNA vaccine
Efficacythe vaccine efficacy in this new analysis was 95.6% for 18 to <65 and 86.4% for participants ≥65 years of age.

Source: https://www.fda.gov/media/144434/download

What is mRNA ?

Messenger RNA, or mRNA, plays a fundamental role in human biology, transferring the instructions stored in DNA to make the proteins required in every living cell.

The vaccine is mainly manufactured at two plants in the US, though Moderna also has operations in Switzerland, with Lonza, and in Sweden with Recipharm.

Johnson & Johnson – COVID-19 Janssen

ManufacturerJanssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson
Drug ClassViral Vector Vaccine
Efficacy 66 % globally, 72 % in the U.S.
Janssen Covid – 19


Drug ClassmRNA Vaccine
Efficacy 95% (source)
  • The BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by Pfizer and BioNTech demonstrated 95% efficacy.
  • Efficacy was consistent across age, gender, race and ethnicity demographics; observed efficacy in adults over 65 years of age was over 94%
  • THE PFIZER-BIONTECH COVID-19 VACCINE fact sheet: https://www.fda.gov/media/144413/download

Sinovac / CoronaVac

GenericSinovac COVID-19
Drug ClassVero Cell Inactivated Vaccine
  • Sinovac Biotech Ltd. CoronaVac COVID-19 Vaccine is based on an inactivated pathogen made by growing the whole virus in a lab and then killing it. Sinovac’s strategy contrasts with many other COVID-19 vaccine development efforts involving their vaccine candidates’ RNA.


Drug ClassProtein-based Subunit Vaccine
Efficacy 89.3 %

Novavax COVID-19 vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) (Covovax) is a prefusion protein coronavirus vaccine candidate made using Novavax’s proprietary nanoparticle technology, Matrix-M, an adjuvant to enhance immune responses and stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies.

To know more about Health articles check our Blog.


The Complete Beginner’s Guide to Exports


Goods and Services that are produced in one country and sold to buyers in another.  This trade can be done through shipping, e-mail, transmitted in private luggage on a plane. Traditionally, exports referred to the sale of tangible goods, including fuels, other commodities, parts and components and finished goods. The seller of the goods and services is referred to as the “Exporter.”


Objectives of Export Trade


  1. Optimum Utilization of Domestic Resources
  • Every country has some natural resources in plenty.
  • These resources can be utilized to increase the production and sell to those countries where these are in shortage.

2. Earning of Foreign Exchange

  • A country with surplus production may earn foreign exchange by selling goods and services to other countries.

3. Sale of Surplus Production

  • A country may produce more than it requires.

 4. Increase the National Income

  • Earning of foreign exchange due to exports add to the national income of a country.

5. Employment Opportunities

  • International business helps the business enterprises to focus on more production which requires more manpower that means more employment opportunities.


Imports are the goods and services that are purchased from the rest of the world by a country’s residents, rather than buying domestically produced items.


If a country imports more than it exports it runs a trade deficit.


If a country imports less than it exports, that creates a trade surplus.


The basic objective of Export Promotion Councils is to develop and promote the exports of the nation. Each Council is in charge of the promotion of a specific group of projects, products, and services.

There are many promotional councils based on category supported by government for exports.

APEDA : The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority 

The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act passed by the Parliament in December, 1985.

SEPC  : – Services Export Promotion Council – SEPC is an Export Promotion Council set by Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India. It is an apex trade body which facilitates service exporters of India. As an advisory body it actively contributes to the formulation of policies of Government of India and acts as an interface between the Services Industry and the Government.

MPEDA – The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) was set up by an act of Parliament during 1972. The erstwhile Marine Products Export Promotion Council established by the Government of India in September 1961 was converged in to MPEDA on 24th August 1972. MPEDA is given the mandate to promote the marine products industry with special reference to exports from the country.

To know more about Export Promotion Councils check website.

12 Important Steps to follow for Export Business

1.  Select Name of the Company

2. Type of Organisation

a) Proprietor          b) Partnership           c) Limited Company         d) LLP

3. Current Account in the Name of the Company

4. Get I.E.Code

5. Export Promotion Councils (EPC) – Join as a member of EPC and avail services and benefits

6. Identify the Importers or Buyers.

7. How to fix Export Price

a) F.O.B.  – Free on Board                         b) C & F – Cost and Freight

c) C.I.F – Cost Insurance and Freight     d) Price to be quoted in US Dollar / Pound / Sterling /Euro / Yen

8. Date of Shipment / Date of Delivery

The buyer will send the quantity of goods,due date for sending the goods up to the port after finalising the price.

9. Mode of Payment

Advance Payment through Letter of Credit (LC)

3 Types of LC:-

a) Revocable LC & Irrevocable LC

b) Recourse LC  & Without Recourse LC

c) Confirmed LC & Unconfirmed LC

It should be Confirmed, Irrevocable, without Recourse LC

 10. Insurance

Get Small Exporters policy from (E.C.G.C)

This Policy will cover Buyer’s Risk, Country Risk, Water Risk.

11. Packing

12. Exports Documents

Commercial Invoice, Packing List, Bill of Lading, Certifications.



A chamber of commerce is a form of business network, for eg., a local organization of business whose goal is to further the interests of business. Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community. There are Different models in which Chambers work.

All Chambers will have Memberships, Services, Summits, Expo and many more we have to select the chambers based on out requirements.

Chamber Models

  • Community Chambers
  • City Chambers
  • State Chambers
  • National Chambers
  • International Chambers

SICCI – The Southern Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

The SICCI has served Indian business by protecting and promoting their interests at the Regional, National and International levels. On October 9th 1909 – Formation of the Southern India Chamber of Commerce & Industry at Ramkoti Buildings, Madras where the Indian Bank Ltd. was also located.

FICCI – Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry

Established in 1927, FICCI is the largest and oldest apex business organisation in India. Its history is closely interwoven with India’s struggle for independence, its industrialization, and its emergence as one of the most rapidly growing global economies. A non-government, not-for-profit organisation, FICCI is the voice of India’s business and industry.

TCC – The Tamil Chamber of Commerce

The Chamber is 75 years old and celebrated its Platinum Jubilee recently. Honourable Vice President of India Thiru M.Venkaiah Naidu was the Chief Guest and inaugurated the Platinum Jubilee celebration and distributed the TCC & Chozha Naachiar Foundation EXIM Awards to the top Exporters, Importers, Ports, Airlines, CFS, CHAs. We look back with pride and satisfaction in the past 75 years of our platinum period.

MCCI – Madras Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Eighteen businessmen of Madras met at the office of Binny & Co. on the 29th September 1836 and unanimously resolved “that an Association be formed in Madras as Madras Chamber of Commerce”. These founding members with John Alves Arbuthnot as the Chairman made up the first Committee of the Chamber.

Andhra Chamber of Commerce

Andhra Chamber which made its humble beginning on August 17, 1928 with 35 Members has today well over 1700 Members – Individuals, Proprietary and Partnership Concerns, Public and Private Limited Companies and Life Members and around 55 Affiliated Chambers of Commerce and Industry and Trade Associations.


10 Reasons Why You Should Invest In Blockchain.


A Blockchain is a distributed, decentralized, public ledger. It seems complicated, but its core concept is really quite simple. Collects information together in groups, also known as blocks, that hold sets of information. It is a type of database. A database is a collection of information that is stored electronically on a computer system. It is not stored in any single location, meaning the records it keeps are truly public and easily verifiable. No centralized version of this information exists for a hacker to corrupt.

Can we trust Blockchain ?

Blockchain technology accounts for the issues of security and trust in several ways. Each node has a full record of the data that has been stored on the blockchain since its inception. No one node within the network can alter information held within it.

Is Blockchain Secure?

After a block has been added to the end of the blockchain, it is very difficult to go back and alter the contents of the block. That’s because each block contains its own hash, along with the hash of the block before it. Hash codes are created by a math function that turns digital information into a string of numbers and letters. If that information is edited in any way, the hash code changes as well.

What is Hash Code ?

  • In simple terms, hash code means taking an input string of any length and giving out an output of a fixed length. The fixed-length output is called an equivalent hash function.
Block Chain cycle

Advantages of Blockchain

1)  Decentralization

Blockchain does not store any of its information in a central location. Instead, the blockchain is copied and spread across a network of computers.

2) Secure Transactions

Once a transaction is recorded, its authenticity must be verified by the blockchain network. Thousands or even millions of computers on the blockchain rush to confirm that the details of the purchase are correct. After a computer has validated the transaction, it is added to the blockchain in the form of a block.

3) Accuracy of the Chain

Transactions on the blockchain network are approved by a network of thousands or millions of computers. This removes almost all human involvement in the verification process, resulting in less human error and a more accurate record of information.

4) Private Transactions

Many blockchain networks operate as public databases, meaning that anyone with an internet connection can view a list of the network’s transaction history. Although users can access details about transactions, they cannot access identifying information about the users making those transactions.

block chain technology

Photo source : 101 Blockchains

Smart Contract

  •  A smart contract is a computer code that can be built into the blockchain to facilitate, verify, or negotiate a contract agreement.
  • A key feature of smart contracts is that they do not need a trusted third party.


Block chain using states in India

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