What is a Vaccine ?
A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.
What is Vaccination ?
Vaccination is a safe, simple, and effective way of protecting people against harmful diseases before they come into contact with them.
Are there side effects from vaccines?
Like any medicine, vaccines can cause mild side effects, such as a low-grade fever, or pain or redness at the injection site. Mild reactions go away within a few days on their own.
4 Categories of vaccines in clinical trial
- Whole Virus
- Viral Vector
- Nucleic Acid ( RNA & DNA)
- Protein Subunit.
|Drug Class||Whole-Virion Inactivated Vaccine|
COVAXIN includes the following ingredients: COVAXIN contains 6µg of whole-virion inactivated SARSCoV-2 antigen (Strain: NIV-2020-770), and the other inactive ingredients such as aluminum hydroxidegel (250 µg), TLR 7/8 agonist (imidazoquinolinone) 15 µg, 2-phenoxyethanol 2.5 mg, and phosphate buffer saline up to 0.5 ml. The vaccine (COVAXIN ) thus has been developed by using inactivated/killed virus along with the aforementioned chemicals
WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF BHARAT BIOTECH COVID-19 VACCINE (COVAXIN )?
Side effects that have been reported with the Bharat Biotech COVID-19 (COVAXIN ) include:
Injection site pain / Swelling / Redness / Itching
|Manufacturer||Serum Institute of India|
The COVISHIELD™ Vaccine includes the following ingredients:
L-Histidine, L-Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, Magnesium chloride hexahydrate,
Polysorbate 80, Ethanol, Sucrose, Sodium chloride, Disodium edetate dihydrate (EDTA), Water for
WHATARE THE BENEFITS OF THE COVISHIELD™ VACCINE?
In ongoing clinical trials, the COVISHIELD™ Vaccine has been shown to prevent COVID-19 disease
following 2 doses given between 4 and 12 weeks apart. The duration of protection against COVID-19
disease is currently unknown.
You may get protective immune response 4 weeks after the second dose of COVISHIELD™ vaccine.
WHATARE THE RISKS OF THE COVISHIELD™ VACCINE?
Side effects that have been reported with (COVISHIELD) include:
Very Common (may affect more than 1 in 10 people)
tenderness, pain, warmth, redness, itching, swelling or bruising where the injection is given
generally feeling unwell • feeling tired (fatigue)
• chills or feeling feverishFever
• feeling sick (nausea)
• joint pain or muscle ache
Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)
• a lump at the injection site
• being sick (vomiting)
• flu-like symptoms, such as high temperature, sore throat, runny nose, cough and chills
Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)
• feeling dizzy
• decreased appetite
• abdominal pain
• enlarged lymph nodes
• excessive sweating, itchy skin or rash
These may not be all the possible side effects of the COVISHIELD™ Vaccine. Serious and
unexpected side effects may occur. COVISHIELD™ Vaccine is still being studied in clinical trials
Sputnik – v
|Manufacturer||Gamaleya National Research Centre of Epidemiology and Microbiology|
|Drug Class||Viral Vector Vaccine|
- Sputnik V is the world’s first registered vaccine based on a well-studied human adenoviral vector-based platform.
- Sputnik V or Gam-COVID-Vac works as a two-part vaccine. It includes two adenovirus vectors recombinant human adenovirus type 26 (rAd26-S) and recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rAd5-S).
The Countries that have approved Sputnik – V:
The Russia Federation, China, Italy , Mexico , Republic of Turkey , Africa , Republic of Mauritius, Philippines, Serbia , Vietnam, Antigua and Barbuda, Austria, Mali, Panama , Egypt, India, Venezuela, Palestine , Pakistan, Nicaragua , Mauritius , Argentina , Nicaragua, Iran, Iraq, Paraguay, Lebanon , Republic of Seychelles, Ghana , Nepal , Honduras , Bangladesh , Bolivia , Albania , San Marino , Maldives , Ecuador
|Drug Class||mRNA vaccine|
|Efficacy||the vaccine efficacy in this new analysis was 95.6% for 18 to <65 and 86.4% for participants ≥65 years of age.|
What is mRNA ?
Messenger RNA, or mRNA, plays a fundamental role in human biology, transferring the instructions stored in DNA to make the proteins required in every living cell.
The vaccine is mainly manufactured at two plants in the US, though Moderna also has operations in Switzerland, with Lonza, and in Sweden with Recipharm.
Johnson & Johnson – COVID-19 Janssen
|Manufacturer||Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson|
|Drug Class||Viral Vector Vaccine|
|Efficacy||66 % globally, 72 % in the U.S.|
- The genetic material in the mRNA vaccines is RNA, whereas the genetic material in the J&J vaccine is DNA, but both encode the information to make the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.
- Factsheet: https://www.janssenlabels.com/emergency-use-authorization/Janssen+COVID-19+Vaccine-HCP-fact-sheet.pdf
- The BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by Pfizer and BioNTech demonstrated 95% efficacy.
- Efficacy was consistent across age, gender, race and ethnicity demographics; observed efficacy in adults over 65 years of age was over 94%
- THE PFIZER-BIONTECH COVID-19 VACCINE fact sheet: https://www.fda.gov/media/144413/download
Sinovac / CoronaVac
|Drug Class||Vero Cell Inactivated Vaccine|
- Sinovac Biotech Ltd. CoronaVac COVID-19 Vaccine is based on an inactivated pathogen made by growing the whole virus in a lab and then killing it. Sinovac’s strategy contrasts with many other COVID-19 vaccine development efforts involving their vaccine candidates’ RNA.
|Drug Class||Protein-based Subunit Vaccine|
Novavax COVID-19 vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) (Covovax) is a prefusion protein coronavirus vaccine candidate made using Novavax’s proprietary nanoparticle technology, Matrix-M, an adjuvant to enhance immune responses and stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies.
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